Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing. Springer also hosts a number of scientific databases, including SpringerLink, Springer Protocols, and SpringerImages. Book publications include major reference works, textbooks, monographs and book series; more than 168,000 titles are available as e-books in 24 subject collections. Springer has major offices in Berlin, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, and New York City.
On 15 January 2015, Holtzbrinck Publishing Group / Nature Publishing Group and Springer Science+Business Media announced a merger. The transaction was concluded in May 2015 and a new joint venture company, Springer Nature, was formed, with Holtzbrinck having the majority 53% share and BC Partners retaining 47% interest in the company.
Elsevier (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɛlzəviːr]) is an information and analytics company and one of the worlds major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information. It was established in 1880 as a publishing company. It is a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journals such as The Lancet and Cell, the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, the Trends and Current Opinion series of journals, the online citation database Scopus, and the ClinicalKey solution for clinicians. Elseviers products and services include the entire academic research lifecycle, including software and data-management, instruction and assessment tools.
Elsevier publishes approximately 420,000 articles annually in 2,500 journals. Its archives contain over 13 million documents and 30,000 e-books. Total yearly downloads amount to more than 900 million.
Elseviers high profit margins (37% in 2016) and its copyright practices have subjected it to criticism by researchers.
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